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Most Important CCNA Interview Questions - 2021

CCNA INTERVIEW QUESTION In this article, I am going to share the most commonly asked CCNA interview questions.  What is OSI model? OSI model stands for open system interconnection. OSI model is a reference model that helps us to understand how does internet work? As a whole, it is tough to understand the internet, that’s why to … Read more

Understanding the OSPF Theory

OSPF Theory

Introduction: (OSPF Theory) Open Shortest Path First OSPF stands for open shortest path first. OSPF is a dynamic routing protocol that comes under IGP(interior gateway protocol). It is also known as link state protocol. It works on shortest path first algorithm (SPF). To advertise routes information OSPF running routers send LSAs to exchange information with … Read more

What is Etherchannel? Why do we need it- Explained


Etherchannel groups multiple interfaces together to act as a single interface. Or we can also say etherchannel bundles multiple physical interfaces into 1 logical channel. And this channel is treated as single link. Etherchannel is also called as port channel and link aggregation. Why we need etherchannel? In general, we add extra links to ensure … Read more

Layer 2 discovery protocols (CDP and LLDP)

Layer 2 discovery protocols (CDP and LLDP)

In this lesson, we will discuss layer 2 discovery protocol. CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocols) LLDP (Link Layer Discovery Protocol) The main function of these protocols to collect and share information with neighbor devices. Shared information includes host name, IP address and device type etc. When a device receive a CDP/LLDP message, it adds the neighbor … Read more

Different methods of Intervlan

Different methods of Intervlan

Intervlan is the process of communication between different VLANs. In this lesson, we will study different methods of intervlan. Traditional method ROAS (router on a stick) SVI (Switch Virtual Interface) method Traditional Method of Intervlan  Traditional approach of intervlan This traditional method of intervlan is very simple and easy to understand. In above topology I … Read more

What is DTP(Dynamic Trunking Protocol)?

What is DTP(Dynamic Trunking Protocol)?

Dynamic Trunking Protocol DTP stands for dynamic trunking protocol. DTP allows Cisco switches to dynamically learn their interface status (access or trunk) without manual configuration. It means when one switch interface is configured, other switch automatically learn the status (doesn’t wait for manual configuration). For example two switches(S1 and S2) are connected together, S1 is … Read more

What is HSRP?

What is HSRP?

What is HSRP- Hot Standby Routing Protocol Explained HSRP stands for Hot standby routing protocol. It is also known as gateway redundancy protocol. It is a Cisco proprietary protocol. HSRP is used for gateway load balancing. In HSRP, there are 2 gateways one stay in active mode and another is standby mode. In normal condition, … Read more

What is VLAN?

What is VLAN?

Virtual local area networks To understand the concept of VLAN, first you have to understand what is LAN? And what is broadcast domain. Understanding of these two is very important to learn the VLAN concept. Let’s begin with LAN, LAN stands for Local Area Network. A LAN includes all the user devices in one location and … Read more

What is SNMP Protocol?

What is SNMP?

What is SNMP Protocol- Simple Network Management Protocol Explained SNMP stands for Simple Network Management Protocol. Its name itself defines its function- network management. In simpler words, SNMP is a network management protocol that is used to monitor and manage the network devices (like switches, routers, printers). It works on application layer. Versions: SNMPv1 SNMPv2 … Read more

What is IP header? Explain its functions

IP header

IP Header and Function of Each Field Are you curious to know IP header in detail? Then, you are are at right place. In this lesson we will learn format of IP header and function of each field. This lesson is also important from interview point of view. Without wasting more time let’s start. IP … Read more